Cholesterol is carried through the bloodstream by carriers made up of fat and proteins called Lipoproteins.
Lipoproteins are classified based on their density. LDL is Low-Density Lipoprotein and HDL is High-Density Lipoprotein.
LDL deposits excess cholesterol in the walls of blood vessels, and induces a buildup of cholesterol, white blood cells, calcium, and other substances in the walls of arteries, causing them to narrow.
High levels of LDL-cholesterol can clog arteries in a medical condition called atherosclerosis, and increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke.
HDL acts as a scavenger that cleans out potentially bad cholesterol from the arteries, hence a reasonably high level of HDL-cholesterol may prevent a heart attack and a stroke.
An imbalance of electrolytes such as potassium and sodium can give rise to cardiovascular disorders caused by abnormal heart contractions which may increase a person's risk of having a heart attack.
Damaged liver cells release the enzyme ALT into the bloodstream, hence the amount of ALT in serum may be helpful in the early detection of liver disease.
A significant increase in the serum levels of the liver enzymes ALP, AST, ALT, and GGT are associated to a host of medical conditions.
High levels of LDH point to acute or chronic cell damage, organ or tissue damage, and this enzyme is also a valuable prognostic marker in lymphoma, leukaemia, and colon cancer.
High levels of Uric acid are seen most frequently in those with a predisposition to inflammatory arthritis or gout.
Creatinine is a waste product from the breakdown of creatine phosphate found in muscle tissue.
High levels of Creatinine are seen in those with muscular disorders, kidney failure, and occasionally pregnancy-related complications.
Blood glucose levels vary widely and test readings strongly depend on the time the blood sample was drawn, and if it is a fasting or non-fasting individual.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation, that can be caused by a wide variety of medical conditions ranging from infection to cancer, and there is a correlation between high CRP levels and an increased likelihood for heart attack or stroke.
Streptolysin O is a toxic enzyme that is produced by group A Streptococcus bacteria, and an untreated infection can lead to post-streptococcal complications like bacterial endocarditis, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) protects red blood cells from potentially harmful by-products that accumulate due to the use of certain medications, when the body fights infection.
G6PD deficiency makes red blood cells more vulnerable to breaking down in a process called hemolysis, i.e., leading to hemolytic anemia.
G6PD deficiency hemolytic anemia is an inherited disorder that is common in men of African descent, and it is most often triggered by certain medications, i.e., quinine, aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, quinidine, sulfa drugs, or antibiotics such as quinolones, and nitrofurantoin.
Blood is drawn directly from a vein into an evacuated sterile collection tube where it is allowed to clot at r.t.p for at least 30 minutes, but not longer than 1 hour prior to the collection of fibrinogen free blood plasma.
Serum is separated from coagulated blood by centrifugation at low speed. Micropipettes are utilized to ensure an accurate transfer of the appropriate volumes of serum and reagent into reaction vials.
The biochemistry analyzer reads optical densities (OD), which provide vital information on blood glucose, electrolytes, blood lipids, myocardium, kidney function, liver function, special protein items, and so forth.
The IVM 401 is the preferred microscope for viewing transparent objects. Our device employs an optical mechanism that converts minute phase variations into corresponding intensity changes in the image.
Light is diffracted by transparent objects, i.e., objects with a refractive index that is not much different from that of their surrounding medium. Diffracted beams carry information about the structure of the object.
In the absence of any color contrast resulting from differential absorption, contrast is created from the interference of diffracted and undiffracted light. This interference is enhanced through Phase contrast.